The use of fertilizers in the region of Punjab has been the subject of debate in recent years, with reports of cases of pesticide poisoning and deaths in some areas.
But researchers say they believe that the use of fungicides, fungicides with active ingredients, may have contributed to the rise in cases of toxic poisoning.
They say they have uncovered evidence of these compounds in the soil in some of the most vulnerable areas in Punjab, including areas with the highest incidence of pesticide contamination.
They also said that their study was the first to show that these compounds may also have been found in the water, in soil and in fish and other aquatic organisms.
The team examined soil samples collected from several different sites in the Punjab region in 2010 and 2011 and identified three compounds in different proportions in different parts of the soil, according to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Fungicides with a broad spectrum of active ingredients and some of them with higher concentrations in the environment have been linked to an increased risk of pesticide toxicity in humans.
In addition, some of these chemicals may be found in more than just the soil.
“The researchers found three compounds, but we are still not sure which ones we have found,” said Jyoti Varma, an ecologist at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.
“We are very interested in how they were used in the past, and what the implications of their presence may be in the future.”
The researchers said they found more than a third of the chemicals they identified were not found in organic matter and that some compounds were not detected in samples collected in areas where the soil was rich in plants or other plants.
However, some chemicals were present in organic material and were identified in the samples of plants or soil samples that contained some of those compounds.
Varma said the compounds found in some samples of soil may be caused by the use or exposure of pesticides.
“The amount of compounds that are in soil varies, and the soil is the only source of this material,” she said.
These compounds can have important effects on plants, including reducing water uptake and affecting their nutrient and chemical balance, which may be harmful to plants and their ecosystems.
A second study published last month in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found traces of pesticides in water in several areas in the western Indian state of Jharkhand.
That study also found that pesticides and fungicides may have been present in soil in parts of Punjab and in the groundwater.
According to the study, the researchers were able to determine the concentration of four compounds in some soil samples.
The concentration of these four compounds ranged from 0.5 micrograms per cubic meter to more than 20 microgram s-1 in some places, and in others, the concentration was less than 1 microgram per cubic yard.
When these compounds were added to the groundwater of a site, the water quality improved.
Researchers said their study showed that the concentrations of compounds were more or less constant throughout the region, and that the compounds were likely found in groundwater, soil and water in the local ecosystem.
While the chemicals identified in these studies were found in soil samples, the concentrations were also found in surface water and groundwater, which is not necessarily indicative of the presence of a toxic substance in the aquifer, the authors of the study said.